Sunday, 14 August 2011

My "Memetics" book - chapter titles

The chapter titles and extended section map of a pre-release version of my Memetics book:

Table of contents

1.Introduction - A brief guide to this book.5
2.Basics - Cultural evolution in a nutshell.9
3.Evidence - Support for cultural evolution.18
4.Defining evolution - What “evolution” means.25
5.Similarities - Between organic and cultural.30
6.Differences - Between cultural and organic.36
7.Memes - Terminology for cultural evolution.41
8.Coevolution - Culture-organic interactions.51
9.Symbiosis - Symbiotic relationships.57
10.Parasitism - Memetic epidemiology.63
11.Mutualism - Mutually-beneficial relationships.82
12.Significance - The importance of memetics .95
13.Defining memes - What "meme" means.100
14.Replicators - Replicator terminology problems.111
15.Scientific perspective - Views from academia.117
16.Criticism - Skeptics and naysayers.138
17.Controversies - Outstanding issues.182
18.Textbooks - What the evolution textbooks say.197
19.Marketing - Exchange memes for cash.203
20.Applications - What memetics is for.213
21.Origins - The origin of culture.216
22.Major transitions - Seismic memetic shifts.222
23.Immunity - Resistance to infection.224
24.The internet - Recent developments.228
25.Classification - Category distinctions.234
26.Mental selection - The Darwinian mind.241
27.Memetic algorithms - Optimising with memes.246
28.History - Of the study of cultural evolution.246
29.Universal Darwinism - Basic principles.257
30.Evolution revolution - The changes needed.265
31.Memetic takeover - Memes triumphant.268
32.Glossary.280
33.References.288
34.Alphabetical index.345

Section names

1.

Introduction - A brief guide to this book

5
1.1.Apes with infected brains5
1.2.Brain-zit analogy5
1.3.Parasites and mutualists7
1.4.Computer viruses8
1.5.The new organisms8
2.

Basics - Cultural evolution in a nutshell

9
2.1.The basic idea9
2.2.The case for cultural evolution10
2.3.Dual inheritance theory11
2.4.Shared underlying principles11
2.5.Cosmetic differences12
2.6.Family trees12
2.7.Symbiosis13
2.8.Epidemiology14
2.9.Resource limitation14
2.10.Adaptive culture15
2.11.Internet culture15
2.12.Going digital16
2.13.Rise of the idea16
2.14.Significance17
2.15.Neglect 17
2.16.Modern ascendance18
2.17.The role of this book18
3.

Evidence - Support for cultural evolution

18
3.1.Evidence of inheritance19
3.2.Evidence of variation19
3.3.Evidence of differential reproductive success20
3.4.Evidence from geographic distribution21
3.5.Evidence of adaptations21
3.6.Evidence from the historical record22
3.7.Evidence from controlled experiments22
3.8.Evidence from natural experiments22
3.9.Evidence from progress23
3.10.Evidence from imperfections23
3.11.Evidence from domestication24
3.12.Evidence of recombination24
3.13.Culture evolves25
3.14.Further reading25
4.

Defining evolution - What “evolution” means

25
4.1.Common usage25
4.2.Cultural change is evolution25
4.3.Particular definitions26
4.4.Objections26
4.5.Naysayers28
4.6.Standard definitions30
5.

Similarities - Between organic and cultural

30
5.1.Basic similarities30
5.2.Other similarities31
5.3.Significance of the similarities33
5.4.Similarities illustrated34
6.

Differences - Between cultural and organic

36
6.1.The differences36
6.2.Different dynamics40
6.3.Significance of the differences41
7.

Memes - Terminology for cultural evolution

41
7.1.Memes42
7.2.Endorsements43
7.3.Dictionaries44
7.4.Etymology44
7.5.Terminology family45
7.6.Richard Dawkins45
7.7.Dawkins retreats46
7.8.The term "meme" wins anyway47
7.9.Duplication47
7.10.Memetics as a hypothesis48
7.11.Meme critics49
7.12.Glossary50
7.13.The mutating "meme" meme50
7.14.Popularity explosion51
8.

Coevolution - Culture-organic interactions

51
8.1.Agricultural revolution52
8.2.Other cases53
8.3.Rapid memetic evolution54
8.4.Rapid human evolution54
8.5.Genetic assimilation55
8.6.The assimilate-stretch principle55
8.7.Oscillations55
8.8.Shielding56
9.

Symbiosis - Symbiotic relationships

57
9.1.Organic symbiosis58
9.2.Memetic symbiosis58
9.3.Classification by physical relationship type58
9.4.Classification by benefits to host58
9.5.Classification by type of dependency59
9.6.Symbiosis modelled60
9.7.Pure memetic symbiosis60
9.8.Slavery60
9.9.Predation61
9.10.A note about teleology62
10.Parasitism - Memetic epidemiology63
10.1.Memetic infections63
10.2.Infectious disease epidemiology63
10.3.Host harm64
10.4.Transmission65
10.5.Vectors66
10.6.Epidemics67
10.7.Epidemic threshold67
10.8.Pandemics68
10.9.Population saturation68
10.10.Terminology note69
10.11.Behavioural modification69
10.12.The Red Queen70
10.13.Sexual recombination72
10.14.The Red Queen of culture72
10.15.Evolution towards mutualism73
10.16.Optimal virulence73
10.17.Resource competition with the host74
10.18.Effects on fertility74
10.19.Effects on lifespan77
10.20.Immunity79
10.21.Meme shedding79
10.22.Virus talk79
10.23.Frequency-dependent selection80
10.24.Memes parasitising other memes80
10.25.Organic genes can parasitise memes82
11.

Mutualism - Mutually-beneficial relationships

82
11.1.Mutually beneficial symbiosis82
11.2.Organic-organic mutualism83
11.3.Organic-memetic mutualism83
11.4.Supporting adaptations84
11.5.Symbiont homes84
11.6.The big brain as a meme nest86
11.7.Memes and the evolution of human ultrasociality89
11.8.Mutualism and ultrasociality89
11.9.Humans without memes92
11.10.Cultural-cultural mutualism92
11.11.Memetic linkage93
11.12.Memetic hitchhiking94
12.

Significance - The importance of memetics

95
12.1.Like finding simple alien life96
12.2.An understanding of cultural evolution is long overdue96
12.3.Cultural evolution as a unifying principle97
12.4.Dawkins' Dangerous Idea97
12.5.Understanding the past98
12.6.Understanding the present98
12.7.Understanding the future99
13.

Defining memes - What "meme" means

100
13.1.The role of imitation100
13.2.Internalist vs Externalist103
13.3.Internalist104
13.4.Externalist105
13.5.Externalism rules105
13.6.Information theory - The foundations of genetics106
13.7.Problems107
13.8.Attractions107
13.9.Definition of "gene"108
13.10.Rival definitions of "gene"108
13.11.Other definitions of "meme"109
13.12.Definition of meme110
14.

Replicators - Replicator terminology problems

111
14.1.Replicator problems112
14.2.The "high fidelity" objection112
14.3.The "etymology" objection113
14.4.The "too late" objection114
14.5.Other critics115
14.6.Reproducers116
14.7.It's not too late116
15.

Scientific perspective - Views from academia

117
15.1.A slow start118
15.2.Current retardation118
15.3.Memetics and cultural evolution119
15.4.Cultural evolution119
15.5.No cultural creatures125
15.6.No meme's eye view127
15.7.Scientific endorsement128
15.8.Modern memetics128
15.9.Social science130
15.10.Neglect135
15.11.Renassance136
15.12.Unnecessary controversy136
15.13.A difficult update136
16.

Criticism - Skeptics and naysayers

138
16.1.Memes do not exist138
16.2.Memetics is a pseudoscience140
16.3.Memetics has never taken off141
16.4.Culture cannot be neatly partitioned into discrete units141
16.5.Evolution doesn't require replicators143
16.6.Memes are not like genes145
16.7.Memes are not like viruses146
16.8.Genes are concrete, memes are intangible148
16.9.Cultural evolution features directed mutation148
16.10.Error catastrophe149
16.11.Mutations are more common150
16.12.Copying and selection may not explain culture152
16.13.Memes are not copied but recreated153
16.14.Memes are sometimes analog155
16.15.Culture is more complicated than that156
16.16.Memetics does not explain meme fitnesses157
16.17.Culture is designed - not evolved158
16.18.Memetics makes no predictions and is unfalsifiable159
16.19.Alleged danger159
16.20.There is no memetic code160
16.21.Memetics is nothing new160
16.22.Memetics terminology is pointless161
16.23.Unpalatable truth162
16.24.Naked memes163
16.25.Complex developmental tangles164
16.26."Just So" stories165
16.27.Lamarck's curse166
16.28.Weak predictions167
16.29.No Mendel of culture168
16.30.Long-isolated cultures can sill interbreed168
16.31.Memes do not self-replicate169
16.32.Critique from semiotics170
16.33.Memetics violates Occam's razor170
16.34.Too negative171
16.35.We are too ignorant to say that cultural evolution is Darwinian171
16.36.Cultural evolution is too different - we should start again172
16.37.Memeticis is not socially acceptable172
16.38.Memetics hasn't produced anything original173
16.39.Memeticists can't agree on what a meme is174
16.40.Evolutionists should present a united front174
16.41.Memetics is “mind-blind”175
16.42.Memetic linkage is too strong176
16.43.Alledged infinite regress176
16.44.Cultural evolution exhibits progress176
16.45.Memes don't have loci177
16.46.Culture exhibits insufficient variation177
16.47.Memetics denies a role for chance processes178
16.48.Deleterious cultural traits can't evolve adaptations178
16.49.Are memes "quasi-autonomous bots"?179
16.50.There are no cultural lineages179
16.51.Not an analogy!180
16.52.Sympathetic interpretations are needed181
16.53.Common misunderstandings181
16.54.There's nothing wrong with memetics181
17.

Controversies - Outstanding issues

182
17.1.Blind Variation and Selective Retention182
17.2.Lamarckian evolution184
17.3.Is culture on a leash?187
17.4.Is culture is a part of human biology?188
17.5.Intelligent design190
17.6.Does memetics cover all cultural change191
17.7.Meme phenotypes192
17.8.Group selection193
17.9.Is culture alive?195
17.10.Imitation difficulty195
17.11.Is the central dogma toast?196
18.

Textbooks - What the evolution textbooks say

197
18.1.The textbooks on evolution198
18.2.Douglas Futayama - "Evolutionary Biology"198
18.3.Mark Ridley - "Evolution"199
18.4.Monroe Strickberger - "Evolution"201
18.5.Complete rewrite needed202
19.

Marketing - Exchange memes for cash

203
19.1.Marketing and advertising204
19.2.Recommendations205
19.3.Viral marketing205
19.4.Big seed marketing206
19.5.Social media marketing208
19.6.Marketing techniques208
19.7.Memetic hitchhiking208
19.8.Triggering209
19.9.Catchphrases 209
19.10.Superstimulii210
19.11.Sex appeal210
19.12.Brands211
19.13.Animation211
19.14.Repetition211
19.15.Bigger is better212
19.16.Negative marketing212
19.17.Free stuff!212
19.18.Discount213
19.19.Win something!213
19.20.Other areas of marketing213
20.

Applications - What memetics is for

214
20.1.Entertainment214
20.2.Self-defense214
20.3.Education214
20.4.Self-development215
20.5.News and politics215
20.6.Causes and charities215
20.7.Religion and cults215
20.8.Deprogramming215
20.9.Military memetics216
20.10.Other applications217
21.

Origins - The origin of culture

217
21.1.Culture in other animals217
21.2.Opposable thumb219
21.3.Symbolism219
21.4.Imitation220
21.5.Cultural tipping point220
21.6.Upright gait hypothesis220
21.7.Language222
21.8.Ultrasociality222
22.

Major transitions - Seismic memetic shifts

222
22.1.Brains222
22.2.Culture223
22.3.Tools223
22.4.Speech223
22.5.Ultrasociality223
22.6.Writing224
22.7.Printing224
22.8.Computers and the internet224
22.9.Superintelligence224
23.

Immunity - Resistance to infection

225
23.1.Immune resistance225
23.2.Examples227
23.3.Avoiding memes227
23.4.The origins of memetic immunity228
23.5.Memetic immune systems should not reject everything228
23.6.Computer immunity228
24.

The internet - Recent developments

229
24.1.Digital revolution229
24.2.Examples of analog and digital systems230
24.3.Analog problems230
24.4.Digital advantage230
24.5.Digital genetics230
24.6.Digital memetics231
24.7.The internet231
24.8.Internet memes231
24.9.Memetic pandemics231
24.10.Cultural microscopes232
24.11.Frivolous internet culture233
24.12.Meme graveyard233
24.13.Computer viruses234
24.14.Machine intelligence234
24.15.Robots235
25.

Classification - Category distinctions

235
25.1.Meme anatomy235
25.2.Cybernetics perspective236
25.3.Memetic hitchhiking237
25.4.Domestication237
25.5.Environmental inheritance237
25.6.Epidemics240
25.7.Transmission media240
25.8.Storage media240
25.9.Meme species240
25.10.The memotype/phemotype split241
26.

Mental selection - The Darwinian mind

241
26.1.Darwin on the brain241
26.2.Optimisation process242
26.3.Within-brain copying242
26.4.Within-brain selection243
26.5.Within-brain variation244
26.6.Brain evolution244
26.7.Adaptive evolution245
26.8.Neurite-tip selection245
26.9.Memes and idea selection245
26.10.Machine intelligence246
27.

Memetic algorithms - Optimising with memes

246
28.

History - Of the study of cultural evolution

246
28.1.William Jones247
28.2.Lewis Henry Morgan247
28.3.August Schleicher247
28.4.Charles Darwin248
28.5.William James248
28.6.Herbert Spencer249
28.7.Thorstein B. Veblen249
28.8.Edward Burnett Tylor249
28.9.Leslie Stephen250
28.10.Gabriel Tarde251
28.11.James George Frazer251
28.12.Pierre Auger252
28.13.Pierre White252
28.14.B. F. Skinner252
28.15.Peter Medawar254
28.16.André Siegfried254
28.17.Donald Campbell255
28.18.Roger Sperry255
28.19.Jacques Monod256
28.20.Karl Popper256
28.21.Richard Dawkins256
28.22.More details257
29.

Universal Darwinism - Basic principles

258
29.1.Natural selection259
29.2.Beyond biology259
29.3.Fundamental concepts259
29.4.Examples of natural destruction259
29.5.Examples of natural production260
29.6.Use in biology260
29.7.Observed frequencies260
29.8.Fundamental revisions260
29.9.Evolution formalised261
29.10.Richard Lewontin 261
29.11.Daniel Dennett262
29.12.Susan Blackmore262
29.13.Gary Boyd263
29.14.William H. Calvin263
29.15.Eliezer Yudkowsky264
29.16.Tim Tyler265
30.

Evolution revolution - The changes needed

266
30.1.Living in the past267
30.2.Ignoring humans267
30.3.Human exceptionalism267
30.4.Delegation of responsibility267
30.5.Too many differences268
30.6.Other theories268
30.7.Radical shift268
31.

Memetic takeover - Memes triumphant

269
31.1.Takeovers in organic evolution270
31.2.Takeovers in cultural evolution270
31.3.Evolution of writing270
31.4.Evolution of land transportation271
31.5.Evolution of manned flight272
31.6.Evolution of thinking272
31.7.The rise of the new organisms273
31.8.Automation - takeover in progress274
31.9.Meme's eye view274
31.10.Genetic takeover276
31.11.Memetic takeover276
31.12.Possible paths277
31.13.Meme impact278
31.14.Extinction possibility278
31.15.The modern takeover279
32.

Glossary

281
33.

References

289
34.

Alphabetical index

346

Note: page numbers and a few other details have changed a little since this was published.

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